Deploy Kubernetes Clusters to vSphere with CAPV 0.6.0

So you spent a week putting together a two part blog post for how to deploy clusters using Cluster API Provider vSphere. You feel pretty good about yourself, right? Well guess what, a new version of CAPV is right around the corner so you better update that blog post!! Well that’s why we’re here, things move fast in the world of Kubernetes…

With the release of Cluster API v1alphav3, the CAPV team has also released a new build of CAPV (0.6.0) with support for v1alpha3. You can review all of the changes from alpha2 to alpha3 here but the main change we’ll look at in this blog post is the creation of the management cluster and workload clusters with clusterctl and how that is different in v1alpha3.

In my previous series of posts on using CAPV to deploy Kubernetes clusters to vSphere environments, I specifically dealt with some of the requirements to support this type of deployment in VMware Cloud on AWS. I won’t be rehashing all of that in this post so feel free to refer to the original posts if you’d like to learn the specifics of deploying clusters to VMC with CAPV.

Prereqs

Feel free to refer to the Install Requirements section of the “Getting Started” guide for more clarity on the requirements for deploying clusters using CAPV. Not much has changed from v1alpha2 but do note at the time of writing this post that DHCP is required to assign IP addresses to Kubernetes nodes as they are provisioned.

Also, please ensure you import both the CAPV machine image OVA, which will be used to support the Kubernetes nodes, as well as the HA proxy OVA, which will allow you to deploy multi-master clusters with CAPV!

Installing the Management Cluster

In v1alpha2, we used clusterctl to instantiate a KinD cluster for bootstrapping, install all of the CAPV components within the KinD cluster, use that KinD cluster to provision a management cluster on the target infrastructure and then “pivot” all of the CAPV management components from the KinD cluster to the management cluster on the target infrastructure. In v1alpha3, we still use clusterctl to deploy the management cluster, but instead of performing a “pivot” we actually just instantiate the management cluster initially using the clusterctl init command. There is no longer a bootstrap cluster. The clusterctl init command assumes there is some existing Kubernetes cluster available to be utilized as the management cluster. You can either use an existing Kubernetes cluster or revert to using KinD for testing, which is what I will do in this post.

As mentioned above, I am going to use a KinD cluster as my CAPV management cluster for this post, so the first thing I need to do after ensuring I’ve installed all of the required software on my client station is to provision my KinD cluster:

$ kind cluster create

This will create a single node KinD cluster and place the kubeconfig file at ${HOME}/.kube/config if the $KUBECONFIG environment variable is not set.

Another slight change in the v1alpha3 management cluster installation workflow is where the vSphere provider credentials are stored. Now, the vSphere provider credentials are provided at ~/.cluster-api/clusterctl.yaml See an example file below, which utilizes the centos CAPV template:

VSPHERE_USERNAME: "cloudadmin@vmc.local"
VSPHERE_PASSWORD: "SuperSecretPassword"

VSPHERE_SERVER: "10.10.10.10"
VSPHERE_DATACENTER: "SDDC-Datacenter"
VSPHERE_DATASTORE: "WorkloadDatastore"
VSPHERE_NETWORK: "sddc-k8-jomann"
VSPHERE_RESOURCE_POOL: "*/Resources"
VSPHERE_FOLDER: "/SDDC-Datacenter/vm/Workloads/mannimal-k8s"
VSPHERE_TEMPLATE: "centos-7-kube-v1.17.3-temp"
VSPHERE_HAPROXY_TEMPLATE: "capv-haproxy-v0.6.0-rc.2-temp"
VSPHERE_SSH_AUTHORIZED_KEY: "ssh-rsa AAAAB3N..."

Note: Currently, clusterctl does not support optional template variables (“VSPHERE_SSH_AUTHORIZED_KEY” and “VSPHERE_FOLDER” are optional) so all variables listed above must be defined to proceed. This will be resolved in a future release of clusterctl.

After creating the required clusterctl.yaml file with access credentials, all you need to do to create your management cluster is run the following command:

$ clusterctl init --infrastructure vsphere

...

Your management cluster has been initialized successfully!

You can now create your first workload cluster by running the following:

  clusterctl config cluster [name] --kubernetes-version [version] | kubectl apply -f -

That’s it! Now I have a functioning CAPV management cluster and I’m ready to deploy my first workload cluster!

Deploying Workload Clusters

Now that my management cluster is up and running, I’ll need to use clusterctl to help me easily build a .yaml file that defines my workload cluster. I’ll use the command below:

clusterctl config cluster v3-workload \
    --infrastructure vsphere \
    --kubernetes-version v1.17.3 \
    --control-plane-machine-count 3 \
    --worker-machine-count 3 > v3-workload.yaml

This command will create a .yaml file that contains the definition for a workload cluster based on Kubernetes version v17.7.3, with 3 master nodes and 3 worker nodes that will deploy in the default namespace of the management cluster. Feel free to review (or edit) the created .yaml file to understand what type of resources will be created when you deploy a workload cluster.

At this point, I’m ready to use kubectl to pass the v3-workload.yaml file to the management cluster to kick off the creation of my workload cluster:

# k apply -f v3-workload.yaml 

cluster.cluster.x-k8s.io/v3-workload created
haproxyloadbalancer.infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v3-workload created
vspherecluster.infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v3-workload created
vspheremachinetemplate.infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v3-workload created
kubeadmcontrolplane.controlplane.cluster.x-k8s.io/v3-workload created
kubeadmconfigtemplate.bootstrap.cluster.x-k8s.io/v3-workload-md-0 created
machinedeployment.cluster.x-k8s.io/v3-workload-md-0 created

As you can see, a handful of resources are created that comprise our workload cluster, including a haproxyloadbalancer, which will be the first resource deployed by the management cluster, as I can observe in the vSphere Web UI:

After the LB VM is created and instantiated as a load balancer, the first control plane/master VM is clone and created:

Once the first control plane VM is instantiated as the master node and “hooked in” to the HA Proxy load balancer, the worker nodes (controled by the machinedeployment resource) are deployed:

These worker nodes are deployed, instantiated as Kubernetes worker nodes, and registered with the existing master. Once this process is finished, the remaining 2 master nodes are provisioned and registered as master nodes in the cluster. Now I can see my cluster currently contains 7 total VMs (1 LB, 3 masters, 3 workers) all with the v3-workload prefix:

I can also verify these resources with kubectl when run against the management cluster:

$ kubectl get cluster 
NAME        PHASE 
v3-workload Provisioned

$ kubectl get haproxyloadbalancer 
NAME        AGE 
v3-workload 14m

$ kubectl get machinedeployment
NAME               PHASE       REPLICAS   AVAILABLE   READY
v3-workload-md-0   ScalingUp   3

$ kubectl get kubeadmcontrolplane
NAME          READY   INITIALIZED   REPLICAS   READY REPLICAS   UPDATED REPLICAS   UNAVAILABLE REPLICAS
v3-workload           true          3                           3                  3

$ kubectl get machines
NAME                               PROVIDERID                                       PHASE
v3-workload-5qrkm                  vsphere://4232e09c-c3e8-d57a-2b8c-0d0a7271387b   Running
v3-workload-7cq87                  vsphere://4232bf91-c0db-e90d-d855-b76ead0c0d1b   Running
v3-workload-dnp2n                  vsphere://42329d4f-4dd4-f8cc-d042-d187304059dd   Running
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-4rbs7   vsphere://42328892-9c43-9053-f5e1-bf499549ab9e   Running
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-kh6fq   vsphere://4232b7d6-7bad-31ba-9683-f5d5edcb967c   Running
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-wzgvv   vsphere://423294cc-3b06-40aa-a31b-3996b52f0421   Running

Now that my infrastructure has been created, I need to access the new cluster with a kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig files for workload clusters are stored as secrets on the management cluster. I can run the following command to pull down the decrypted kubeconfig file for my v3-workload cluster:

$ kubectl get secret/v3-workload-kubeconfig -o json \
  | jq -r .data.value \
  | base64 --decode \
  > ~/.kube/v3-workload

Note, this command places the kubeconfig file in the ~/.kube directory. My personal workflow includes maintaining separate kubeconfig files for all my clusters and using ktx to navigate between config files/clusters.

Now that I have my workload cluster’s kubeconfig file, I’m going to use ktx to set my cluster config and I’ll be ready to start interacting with my workload cluster:

$ ktx v3-workload

$ kubectl get nodes

NAME                               STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
v3-workload-5qrkm                  NotReady   master   14m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-7cq87                  NotReady   master   19m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-dnp2n                  NotReady   master   16m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-4rbs7   NotReady   <none>   16m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-kh6fq   NotReady   <none>   16m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-wzgvv   NotReady   <none>   16m   v1.17.3

Great!! Now I can observe my 3 master and 3 control plane nodes but I also notice that they are in the NotReady status. That is because CAPI (and CAPV, by extension) does not automatically deploy a Container Network Interface (CNI) for workload clusters. Feel free to deploy any CNI you see fit but I’m going to use Calico in my cluster. I can simply deploy Calico by running the following kubectl command:

kubectl apply -f https://docs.projectcalico.org/manifests/calico.yaml

After a couple of seconds, I can check my nodes again to make sure they’ve switched to the READY state:

$ kubectl get nodes

NAME                               STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
v3-workload-5qrkm                  Ready    master   18m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-7cq87                  Ready    master   23m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-dnp2n                  Ready    master   20m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-4rbs7   Ready    <none>   20m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-kh6fq   Ready    <none>   20m   v1.17.3
v3-workload-md-0-8d98957bb-wzgvv   Ready    <none>   20m   v1.17.3

And there we have it! I’m ready to start deploy applications to my workload cluster!

Conclusion

So that about covers it. As I said initially, I wanted to take some time to look at the new workflow for deploying the management cluster in CAPV v1alpha3 as compared to the workflow I covered in my previous post on CAPV v1alpha2. Thanks for taking the time to follow along and feel free to reach out in the comments with any follow up questions or comments!

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